For some, it was another research voyage. But for Lisa Broder, it was a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity.
Resuming its annual trek through the Northwest Passage, the CCGS Amundsen set out from Resolute Bay early September and made its way towards Inuvialuit Settlement Region waters. Carrying 36 researchers from around the world, the ship was manned by a crew of 24 for the month-long mission.
“For us, this was an amazing opportunity,” said Broder, who led the expedition. “Many of us have worked in Canada and in the North before, but none of us have been on this ship. It was a great opportunity to come here and see this first-hand.”
“The general objective has to do with thawing permafrost, both on land and the sub-sea. We just want to see where all those eroding coastlines and the Mackenzie River plume goes and what happens to that material in the ocean.
“It can have a large impact on the coastal community and marine ecosystem, but also on a global scale. We have a diverse team of scientists on board with their own objectives.”
Broder was one of several European Union scientists who was along for the trip for the first time. Historically, the missions have been mainly funded by Canada, but this time around the E.U. helped with the bill.
Examining how thawing permafrost affects the water table, Broder said team was examining the environment from multiple angles, cross referencing data collected from water samples with satellite imagery and other sources of information.
When permafrost thaws, run-off carries the soil into the river systems. Those rivers carry the sediment further down, eventually discharging it into the Beaufort Sea. The amount of sediment discharged is so large it can be seen from space. In fact, scientists can analyze the colour of the water in satellite imagery and determine how much sediment is floating in the water table.
Carbon- and nitrogen-rich sediments in the water column produce a surge in nutrients serves as a great feast for microscopic organisms such as phytoplankton and algae, but limit the amount of sunlight that can penetrate the water, which affects breeding. One focus of Broder’s research is how much degradation is occurring in organic substances.
Change is coming to the Arctic at a rapid pace — the coastline along the Beaufort Sea is among the fastest transforming coastlines in the world, eroding away at a rate of 40 metres per year in some areas, notably Kelly Island, located near Richard’s Island.
“What’s neat about this cruise is it is taking the accumulation of all the erosion,” Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) physical scientist Dustin Whalen said. “We can’t really identify a source such as Kelly Island, but we’re hopeful to identify the total amount of erosion altogether.”
Broder said traces of coastal erosion have been tracked as far out as 24 kilometres out to sea, though the distance it could travel depended on wind, current and a number of other factors.
Drilling into the past
To understand what lies in the future for the Beaufort Sea, researchers need to understand its history. Fortunately, all the sediment flowing into the ocean eventually settles at the bottom, where it is buried by more sediment flowing in. Over time, the buried sediments are compacted into layers, which can be distinguished by the environmental factors that surrounded the sediment at the time it was deposited.
With this knowledge in mind, scientists can drill out core samples showing a cross-section of each layer. From the differences in the chemistry of each layer of sediment, researchers can then determine a slew of environmental factors present when the soil was first deposited, including water temperature, salinity and nutrient content, going back thousands of years.
Broder added scientists were able to determine ocean conditions as far back as the last ice age, when ocean levels were up to 120 metres lower in much of the world and the coastline of the Arctic ocean extended much further out. She noted the amount of soil that could be bored out depended on a number of conditions.
“We’re happy if we get five metres of sediment,” she said. “Depending on where you are in the Beaufort Sea, that can correspond to a thousand, maybe two thousand years, or it can go back to the last ice age and beyond.
“Depending on how much sediment you get per year or per thousand years, that corresponds to how far you can look back in time.”
500 feet of insulated conductor barrel was inserted though the extent of under sea permafrost during drilling operations in the Beaufort sea during the 1970’s. Through millennia, permafrost has been subjected to the non variance sea bed water temperature. During one drilling exploration site 20 miles from the outflow of the Mackenzie River into the Beaufort, driftwood was pumped out that came from 2000 feet deep down of river silt deposit. In the 1970’s, late September storms, as happened annually, would wash away banks. The only place where tundra lost permafrost in the Tuk region happened through man-made disturbances that uncovered the insulated layer. Are the pingos losing height. I profiled ice thickness throughout the Mackenzie Delta and Beaufort coastline in the 1970’s reaching uniform depths of 6 feet, and 7 feet at shores.